A new model for dark matter

A new model for dark matter

This NASA Hubble Area Telescope picture exhibits the distribution of darkish matter within the heart of the large galaxy cluster Abell 1689, which comprises about 1,000 galaxies and trillions of stars. Darkish matter is an invisible type of matter that makes up a lot of the mass of the universe. Hubble can’t see darkish matter straight. Astronomers inferred its location by analyzing the impact of gravitational lensing, during which gentle from galaxies behind Abell 1689 is distorted by interference of matter throughout the cluster. The researchers used the noticed positions of 135 lensed photographs of 42 background galaxies to calculate the placement and quantity of darkish matter within the cluster. They mapped the inferred darkish matter concentrations, in blue, to a picture of the cluster taken by Hubble’s Superior Digicam for Surveys. If the cluster’s gravity got here from solely seen galaxies, the lensing distortions could be a lot weaker. The map reveals that the densest focus of darkish matter is on the coronary heart of the cluster. Abell 1689 is positioned 2.2 billion light-years from Earth. Picture taken June 2002. Credit score: NASA, ESA, D. Coe (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory / California Institute of Expertise, Area Telescope Science Institute), N. Benitez (Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, Spain), T. Broadhurst (College of Basque Nation, Spain), and H. Ford (Johns Hopkins College)

Darkish matter stays one of many nice mysteries of recent physics. Clearly, it should exist, as a result of with out darkish matter, for instance, the movement of galaxies can’t be defined. However darkish matter has by no means been attainable to detect in an experiment.

There are presently many proposals for brand spanking new experiments: aimed toward detecting darkness Factor straight by their scattering from the elements of the atomic nuclei of the detection medium, i.e. protons and neutrons.

A crew of researchers — Robert McGee and Aaron Pearce of the College of Michigan and Geli Ellor of the Johannes Gutenberg College in Mainz, Germany — has proposed a brand new darkish matter candidate: HYPER, or “Extremely Interactive Particulate Relics.”

Within the HYPER mannequin, a while after the formation of darkish matter in early universeIts interplay with unusual matter is surprisingly getting stronger – making it attainable to detect it as we speak and on the identical time explaining the abundance of darkish matter.

The brand new variety in the dead of night matter sector

As a result of the seek for heavy darkish matter particles, or WIMPS, has not but led to success, the analysis neighborhood is on the lookout for different darkish matter particles, particularly lighter ones. On the identical time, one would typically anticipate part transitions At midnight sector – in any case, there are lots of extra within the seen sector, the researchers say. However earlier research are likely to neglect it.

“There hasn’t been a constant mannequin of darkish matter for the mass vary that some deliberate experiments hope to hit,” mentioned Elor, a postdoctoral researcher. “Nevertheless, our HYPER mannequin exhibits that part transition can truly assist make darkish matter simpler to detect.” . in theoretical physics at JGU.

The problem for an ample mannequin: If darkish matter interacts strongly with unusual matter, then the (precisely recognized) quantity of it fashioned within the early universe could be very small, which contradicts astrophysical observations. Nevertheless, if produced in the correct amount, the interplay could be too weak to detect darkish matter in present experiments.

“Our central concept, which underpins the HYPER mannequin, is that the interplay immediately adjustments all of sudden – so we will get the most effective of each worlds: the correct amount of darkish matter and numerous interplay in order that we will detect it,” McGee mentioned.

A new model for dark matter

Constraints within the mass- and nucleon-intermediate coupling degree from the cooling of HB stars [25] and SN 1987A [12]in addition to uncommon Kaon decomposition [26] (grey shading). credit score: Bodily evaluation letters (2023). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.031803

And that is how the researchers conceived it: in particle physics, the interplay is normally mediated by a selected particle, the so-called medium — and so is the interplay of darkish matter with unusual matter. Each the composition of darkish matter and the perform of detection are detected by this medium, with the power of the interplay relying on its mass: the better the mass, the weaker the interplay.

The medium should first be heavy sufficient for the correct quantity of darkish matter to be fashioned, and later gentle sufficient in order that darkish matter will be detected in any respect. Resolution: There was a part transition after the formation of darkish matter, during which the mass of the medium immediately decreased.

“So, on the one hand, the quantity of darkish matter stays fixed, and then again, the interplay is enhanced or strengthened in such a approach that the darkish matter is straight detectable,” Pearce mentioned.

The brand new mannequin covers virtually your complete parameter vary of the deliberate experiments

“The HYPER mannequin of darkish matter is ready to cowl virtually your complete vary that the brand new experiments are making out there,” Ellor mentioned.

Particularly, the analysis crew first thought of the utmost cross-section of the interplay medium with the protons and neutrons of an atomic nucleus to be according to astronomical observations and a few particle physics decompositions. The following step was to see if there was a mannequin of darkish matter that confirmed this interplay.

“And that is the place we got here up with the thought of ​​transition,” McGee mentioned. “We then calculated the quantity of darkish matter current within the universe after which simulated the part transition utilizing our calculations.”

There are a slew of limitations to remember, comparable to a hard and fast quantity of darkish matter.

“Right here, we have now to systematically contemplate and embrace a number of eventualities, for instance, asking the query whether or not it’s actually sure that our medium doesn’t immediately result in the formation of darkish matterAnd that, in fact, would not need to be the case,” Ellor mentioned. However in the long run, we have been satisfied that HYPER Mannequin Works “.

Publication of the analysis within the journal Bodily evaluation letters.

extra data:
Gilly Elor et al, Maximizing Direct Detection Utilizing Extremely Interacting Particle Darkish Matter, Bodily evaluation letters (2023). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.031803

Introduction of
College of Michigan

the quote: A New Mannequin for Darkish Matter (2023, January 23) Retrieved January 23, 2023 from https://phys.org/information/2023-01-dark.html

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