Quantum Computing – Thesaurus

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You do not have to show again the clock too far, and quantum computing was extra of a freak thought than a actuality. However now its development appears to be accelerating – the patent system (because it has with different rising applied sciences) stands as a document of the large progress that has been made and people now striving ahead are on the forefront.

Simply final week, the European Patent Workplace revealed the second in a collection of Quantum Applied sciences Insights studies, presenting its findings relating to the rise in new filings and the variety of patent households over the previous 30 years, and offering evaluation on how shut they’re. 10% of current European patent functions on this space have a number of candidates, indicating collaborative analysis world wide.

On this article, we focus on the origins of quantum computing, its current emergence as a definite class within the patent taxonomy area, and statistics over a newer time-frame, indicating who’s presently, and who could also be, on the forefront of quantum computing developments.

Peak time

The theoretical risk of quantum computing was first proposed within the 1980’s. In 1994 the so-called Shor algorithm appeared. This was an algorithm which, if run on a hypothetical quantum laptop, would supply a method of discovering prime elements of very massive numbers inside an affordable period of time, one thing not potential with typical computer systems however can be of nice significance in the actual world. At the moment, a quantum laptop didn’t actually exist, however the prospect of making use of the algorithm in apply appears to have sparked a surge of curiosity.

The primary demonstrations of precise quantum computing had been reported a number of years later, in 1998. Now, one other 25 years or so later, there are a selection of quantum computer systems. Quantum computing could be thought of to have moved from an obscure educational analysis matter to an rising know-how receiving important funding. Patent functions with quantum computing as their material are actually showing in growing numbers.

In 2019, this was mirrored within the addition of the Worldwide Patent Classification (IPC) to a definite class associated to quantum computing.:

“G06N 10/00 Quantum computer systems, i.e. laptop programs based mostly on the phenomena of quantum mechanics [2019.01]”

In 2022 this has been revised to:-

“G06N 10/00 Quantum computing, i.e. info processing based mostly on the phenomena of quantum mechanics [2022.01]

  • G06N 10/20 Quantum computing paradigms, reminiscent of quantum circuits or common quantum computer systems [2022.01]
  • G06N 10/40 Bodily realization or architectures for quantum processors or parts for manipulating qubits, reminiscent of qubit coupling or qubit management [2022.01]
  • G06N 10/60 Quantum algorithms, eg based mostly on quantum optimization, quantum Fourier rework or Hadamard [2022.01]
  • G06N 10/70 Quantum error correction, detection, or prevention, reminiscent of floor symbols or magic state distillation [2022.01]
  • G06N 10/80 Quantum Programming, reminiscent of interfaces, languages, or software program growth kits for creating or manipulating applications able to operating on quantum computer systems; platforms for simulating or accessing quantum computer systems, reminiscent of cloud quantum computing”

New patent functions associated to quantum computing, and former functions reclassified, will now be categorized into the brand new classes. This revision ought to assist the IPC monitor developments in distinct areas of quantum computing.

Though, not all earlier functions associated to quantum computing have truly been reclassified into the brand new quantum computing classes [G06N 10/00, G06N 10/20, G06N 10/40, G06N 10/60, G06N 10/70 or G06N 10/80] It appears probably that the related functions on the time had been categorized within the extra basic group “G06N 99/00”. With this in thoughts, patenting exercise in recent times associated to quantum computing could be estimated utilizing the EPO’s Espacenet database.

energy surge

One measure of patenting exercise is the variety of new households of quantum computing patent functions that seem every year in all international locations lined by the EPO’s Espacenet database. A patent software suite (which can embody granted patents) consists of a number of patent publications that relate to the identical invention/technical growth. It could embody publications in numerous international locations and/or completely different publications in the identical nation (eg publications of an software after which a patent granted). On the whole, all members of the family declare the identical precedence. A brand new household seems with the primary publication of any member of the family by any patent workplace.

From 2016 to 2021, the numbers of quantum computing households in keeping with the Espacenet database grew considerably, albeit from a really low stage. From the knowledge out there till the tip of final yr, the expansion development will proceed in 2022.

Supply: EPO’s Espacenet, January 2023

Firms lately energetic in quantum computing could also be of specific curiosity. One indicator is the variety of patent software households related to specific candidates. This can be estimated, however the counting of households relies upon for instance, on how households belonging to associated however legally distinct firms are handled, how households belonging to joint candidates are counted, and particularly how translations of names and variations within the naming of candidates are handled. Nonetheless, the desk signifies the highest fifty candidates when it comes to the variety of new quantum computing households since 2019. These superior fifty have made up about 50% of all new quantum computing households since 2019.

Supply: EPO’s Espacenet, November 2022

By far the vast majority of the highest candidates within the desk above are Individuals or Chinese language. Utilizing precedence international locations for patent software households as a information to the geographic origin of technical developments/innovations of curiosity to households, it seems that the US was most often the nation of origin of technical developments/innovations on this space of ​​quantum computing, as proven beneath from 2012 to 2021. Nonetheless That stated, based mostly on a knowledge set by way of the start of November 2022, China seems to have overtaken the US when it comes to new patent software households showing in 2022.

Supply: EPO’s Espacenet, November 2022

The primary set and IPC subsets (eg G06N 10/20) devoted to patent software households can be utilized to understand the important thing technical points of quantum computing which might be of curiosity to patent households.

Supply: EPO’s Espacenet, November 2022

Households can after all be given a couple of IPC designation, i.e. they are often categorized as associated to a couple of main group or subgroup within the IPC, and thus to a couple of facet of quantum computing know-how.

Focusing now on European patent functions, info within the European Patent Workplace’s “Bulletin Search” database signifies that the variety of revealed European patent functions associated to quantum computing has additionally elevated considerably since 2016 (and particularly in recent times), as is Proven within the chart beneath is the interval from 2012 to 2022.

Supply: EP Bulletin Search, January 2023

The desk beneath signifies the highest forty or so candidates by variety of European patent functions revealed within the subject of quantum computing since 2019. These prime candidates account for greater than 80% of all European patent functions revealed within the subject since 2019.

Supply: EP Bulletin Search, January 2023

It could be price noting that in 2019 solely about two dozen completely different candidates had been answerable for European patent functions associated to quantum computing; In 2022, about ninety completely different candidates participated. Plainly as curiosity and analysis within the know-how has elevated in recent times, the variety of candidates has additionally elevated.

Relative to different applied sciences reminiscent of AI/Machine Studying, the rise in patent filings directed at quantum computing illustrates the funding and energy that continues to be utilized alongside the trail to quantum benefit.

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